Lost in a Transmedia Universe

  • Aaron Smith Wieden+Kennedy
Palavras-chave: Lost, transmídia, construção de mundo, convergência, televisão.


Este artigo (previamente publicado como um capítulo de minha tese) analisa os mecanismos transmidiáticos de storytelling por trás da narrativa do seriado Lost, da ABC. Por ter sua narrativa sustentada em uma complexa mitologia, Lost faz um grande esforço para suplementar a narrativa de seu programa de TV através de valiosas e distintas extensões narrativas. Em um primeiro momento, eu examino como as técnicas de construção de mundo em Lost encorajam os fãs mais ávidos a “jogar” com o espaço narrativo. Eu então faço avaliações sobre as extensões que Lost oferece como opcionais, através de experiências convincentes em seus textos expandido. Ao  ser muito bem-sucedida ao balancear seus fãs mais ávidos com os casuais espectadores, Lost representa o futuro de muitos programas de televisão que se propõem a colocar os fãs em situações imersivas, usando um vasto universo transmídia, ao mesmo tempo prometendo um programa de televisão coerente em seu interior


ABBOT, Stacey. “How Lost found its audience: The Making of a Cult Blockbuster.” Reading Lost: Perspectives on a Hit Television Show. Ed. Roberta Pearson. London: IB Tauris, 2009.

ADKINS, Jonah. “The World of Lost.” Mapping Lost. http://mappinglost.blogspot. com/> 27 January 2009.

“Advertising the Digital Age.” Team Digital Company Blog. <http://promotions2.com/2009/new-rules-of-advertising-in-the-digital-age/> 13 March 2009.

AHRENS, Frank. “Final ‘Star Wars’ Caps Moneymaking Empire.” The Washington Post. 14 May 2005 <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/05/13/AR2005051301512.html>

ARANGO, Tim. “Broadcast TV Faces Struggle to Stay Viable.” The New York Times. <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/28/business/media/28network.html?_r=3> 27 February 2009.

ASKWITH, Ivan. Deconstructing the Lost Experience. Cambridge, MA: Convergence Culture Consortium, 2006.

______. This Is Not (Just) An Advertisement: Understanding Alternate Reality Games. Cambridge, MA: Convergence Culture Consortium, 2006.

______. Television 2.0: Reconceptualizing TV as an Engagement Medium. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Master’s Thesis, 2007.

AUSTIN, Alec. Expectations Across Entertainment Media. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Master’s Thesis, 2007.

BORLAND, John. “The TV Is Dead. Long Live the TV.” Wired. <http://www.wired.com/entertainment/hollywood/news/2007/04/tvhistory_0406> 6 April, 2007. Boxofficemojo.com. <http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=blairwitchproject.htm>

BROOKER, Will. “Television Out of Time: Watching Cult Shows on Download.”Reading Lost: Perspectives on a Hit Television Show. Ed. Roberta Pearson. London: IB Tauris, 2009

CALDWELL, John. “Convergence Television: Aggregating Form and Repurposing

Content in the Culture of Conglomeration.” Television After TV: Essays on a Medium

in Transition. Eds. Lynn Spigel and Jan Olsson. Durham, NC: Duke University Press,


CARTER, Bill. “The Media Business: ‘Twin Peaks’ May Provide A Ratings Edge for ABC.”

The New York Times. 16 April 1990. <http://www.nytimes.com/1990/04/16business/themedia-business-twin-peaks-may-provide-a-ratings-edge-for-abc.html?sec=&spon=>

CERASINI, Marc and Alfonsi, Alice. The House Special Subcommittee’s Findings at

CTU. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.

Dark UFO. <http://darkufo.blogspot.com/>

DAWSON, Max. “Little Players, Big Shows: Format, Narration, and Style on Television’s

New Smaller Screens.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New

Technologies 13.3 (2007): 230-250.

DENA, Christy. “How the Internet is Holding the Centre of Conjured Universes.”

Paper presented at Internet Research 7.0: Internet Convergences, Association of

Internet Researchers. Brisbane, Queensland, 27-30 September 2006.

______. “Patterns in Cross-Media Interaction Design: It’s Much More than a URL…(Part 1)” UniverseCreation101.com. March 10, 2007. http://www.universecreation101.com/category/arg/page/6/

______.“Techniques for Segmenting Content Across Media.” Christydena.com. <http://www.christydena.com/2008/09/techniques-for-segmenting-content-across-media/> September 4Th 2008

DOVEY, Jon and Kennedy, Helen W. Game Cultures: Computer Games as New Media. New York: Open University Press, 2006.

EVANS, Elizabeth Jane. “Character, Audience Agency and Transmedia Drama.” Media Culture & Society. 30, 2 (2008): 197-213

FISHER, Ken. “NBC Universal chief calls for ‘Net-savvy TV pitches” Ars Technica. 13 March 2006. <http://arstechnica.com/old/content/2006/03/6369.ars>

FISKE, John. Television Culture. New York: Routledge, 1987.

FORD, Sam. “Futures of Entertainment: Transmedia Properties.” Convergence Culture Consortium Weblog. <http://www.convergenceculture.org/weblog/2006/11/foe_transmedia_properties.php#more> 17 November 2006.

GERSTMANN, Jeff. “Enter the Matrix Review.” Gamespot.com. 20 May 2003. < http://www.gamespot.com/pc/action/enterthematrix/review.html?page=2>

GOLDMAN, Eric. “Battlestar Galactica Producer Talks Strike.” Ign.com. 7 November 2007. <http://tv.ign.com/articles/833/833633p1.html>

GRAY, Jonathan and MITTELL, Jason. “Speculation on Spoilers: Lost Fandom,

Narrative Consumption and Rethinking Textuality.” Particip@tions. 4.1, 2007 <http://www.participations.org/Volume%204/Issue%201/4_01_graymittell.htm>

GREENBERG, Andy. “Star Wars’ Galactic Dollars.” Forbes.com. <http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/24/star-wars-revenues-tech-cx_ag_0524money.html> 24 May 2007.

GWENLLIAN-JONES, Sara and PEARSON, Roberta. Cult Television. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 2004.

HAYWARD, Jennifer. Consuming pleasures: active audiences and serial fictions from Dickens to soap opera. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997.

HELM, Burt. “Why TV Will Never Be the Same.” Business Week. 23 November 2004. <http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/nov2004/tc20041123_3292_tc184.htm>

HILL, Matt. Fan Cultures. New York: Routledge, 2002.

HOEY, Matt. “All Who Wander Are Not Lost.” Written By: The Magazine of the

Writer’s Guild of America, West. September 2006. <http://www.wga.org/writtenby/writtenbysub.aspx?id=2195>

JENKINS, Henry. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press, 2008.

______. “Convergence? I Diverge.” MIT Technology Review. June 2001. <http://www.technologyreview.com/business/12434/>

______, Ravi Purushotma, Katherine Clinton, Margaret Weigel, and Alice Robison. “Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education in the 21st Century.” White Paper for MacArthur Foundation, 2006.

______. “Do You Enjoy Making The Rest of Us Feel Stupid?”: alt.tv.twinpeaks, the Trickster Author, and Viewer Mastery.” Full of Secrets: Critical Approaches to Twin Peaks. Ed. David Lavery. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1995. 51-69.

______. Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

______. Jenkins, Henry. “Game Design as Narrative Architecture.” First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game. Eds. Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004. 118-120.

______.“Getting Lost.” Henryjenkins.org. 25 August 2006. <http://www.henryjenkins.org/2006/08/getting_lost.html>

______.“Inviting Our Participation: An Interview with Sharon Marie Ross (Part One).” Henryjenkins.org. 8 October 2008. <http://henryjenkins.org/2008/10/an_interview_with_sharon_marie.html>

______. Jenkins, Henry. “Producing the CSI:NY/Second Life Crossover: An Interview with Electric Sheep’s Taylor and Krueger (1 of 2).” Henryjenkins.org. 24 October 2007. <http://www.henryjenkins.org/2007/10/producing_the_csinysecond_life.html>

______.“Talking Transmedia: An Interview With Starlight Runner’s Jeff Gomez

(part one).” 28 May 2008. Henryjenkins.org <http://henryjenkins.org/2008/05/


______.Textual Poachers: Television Fans & Participatory Culture. New York:

Routledge, 1992.

______.“Transmedia Storytelling.” MIT Technology Review. 15 January 2003. <http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/13052/page3/>

JENSEN, Jeff. “Lost in Transition.” Entertainment Weekly. <http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20034817,00.html> 13 April 2007.

______.“‘Lost’: Mind-Blowing Scoop From Its Producers.” Entertainment Weekly. <http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20179125_5,00.html> 20 February 2008.

______.“What to do? Lessons from Cult TV Shows.” Entertainment Weekly. 11 April 2005. <http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1046376,00.html>

JOHNSON, Derek . “Inviting Audiences In: The spatial reorganization of production and consumption in ‘TVIII’.” New Review of Film and Television Studies. 5, 1, 2007: 61-80.

______. “The Fictional Institutions of Lost: World Building, Reality, and the Economic

Possibilities of Narrative Divergence.” Reading Lost: Perspectives on a Hit Television

Show. Ed. Roberta Pearson. London: IB Tauris, 2009.

JOHNSTON, Amy and LACHONIS, Jon. Lost Ate My Life: The Inside Story of a

Fandom Like No Other. Toronto: ECW Press, 2008.

JONES, Steven E. “Dickens on Lost: Text, Paratext, Fan Based Media.” Loyola

University, Chicago. 22 May 2007.

______. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies. New York: Routledge, 2008.

JUUL, Jesper. “The Open and the Closed. Games of Emergence and Games of

Progression.” Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference Proceedings. Ed. Frans Mäyrä. Tampere: Tampere University Press, 2002. 323-329.

KINDER, Marsha. Playing with Power in Movies, Television and Video Games: From Muppet Babies to Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

KIRKPATRICK, David. “AOL Is Planning a Fast-Forward Answer to TiVo.” The New York Times. 10 March 2003. <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/10/business/aol-isplanning-a-fast-forward-answer-to-tivo.html?sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1>

KUSHNER, David. “Rebel Alliance.” FastCompany.com. 11 April 2008. <http://www.fastcompany.com/node/798975/print>

LACHONIS, Jon. “BuddyTV Interviews LOST’s Damon Lindelof and Carlton Cuse - and gets Answers!” BuddyTV.com. 7 March 2007. <http://www.buddytv.com/articles/lost/buddytv-interviews-losts-damon-4766.aspx>

______.“Lost Mobisodes Unraveled.” Ugo.com. <http://www.ugo.com/ugo/html/


LANCASTER, Kurt. Interacting with Babylon 5. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.

LEE, Felicia R. “‘Bad Twin,’ a Novel Inspired by ‘Lost,’ Makes the Best-Seller Lists.” The New York Times. 27 May 2006. <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/27/books/27lost.html>

LONG, Geoffrey. Transmedia Storytelling: Business, Aesthetics, and Production at the Jim Henson Company. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Master’s Thesis, 2007

“The Lost Experience Clues: Clue #42 – Jimmy Kimmel Interview with Hugh McIntyre.” Lost Experience Clues Blog. 25 May 2006. <http://thelostexperienceclues.blogspot.com/2006/05/clue-42-jimmy-kimmel-interview-with.html>

Lostpedia.com <http://lostpedia.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page>

LOTZ, Amanda. The Television Will Be Revolutionized. NY: New York University

Press, 2007.

LOWRY, Tom. “Network finds marketing paradise with Lost.” Business Week. 24 July 2006. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_30/b3994072.htm

MCCHESNEY, Robert. Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in

Dubious Times. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

MILLER, Lia. “To Counter the Doldrums During Summer Reruns, ‘Lost’ Fans Can Get Lost in a Game Online.” The New York Times. 24 April 2006. <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/24/business/media/24lost.html?_r=1&oref=slogin&pagewanted=print>

MITTELL, Jason. “Lost in a Great Story.” Reading Lost: Perspectives on a Hit

Television Show. Ed. Roberta Pearson. London: IB Tauris, 2009

______.“Lost in an Alternate Reality.” Flow TV 4.7, 2006. <http://flowtv.org/?p=165>

______.”Narrative Complexity in Contemporary American Television.” The Velvet

Light Trap. 58, 2006: 29-39

______. “Serial Narratives and Tie-In Games: Problems, Possibilities and Pleasures.”

Unpublished paper presented at Society for Cinema and Media Studies Conference, Vancouver, Canada, March 2006.

______-.“To Spread or to drill?” Just TV. <http://justtv.wordpress.com/2009/02/25/tospread-or-to-drill/> 25 February 2009.

MORRIS, Chris. “Requiem For The Hardcore.” Forbes.com. <http://www.forbes.

com/2008/09/29/hardcore-casual-gamer-tech-personal-cx_cm_0930hardcore.html> 9 September 2008.

MURPHY, Priscilla Coit. “Books are Dead, Long Live Books.” Rethinking Media

Change: The Aesthetics of Transition. Eds. David Thorburn and Henry Jenkins. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2003. 81-95.

MURRAY, Janet H. Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. New York: The Free Press, 1997.

MURRAY, Noel. “Lost’s Damon Lindelof and Carlton Cuse.” A.V. Club. 22 April 2008. <http://www.avclub.com/articles/losts-damon-lindelof-and-carlton-cuse,14231/>

ÖRNEBRING, Henrik. “Alternate reality gaming and convergence culture: The case of Alias.” International Journal of Cultural Studies. 10.4 (2007): 445-462.

PARKS, Lisa. “Flexible Microcasting: Gender, Generation, and Television-Internet Convergence. Television After TV: Essays on a Medium in Transition. Eds. Lynn Spigel and Jan Olsson. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004. 133-163

PARKIN, Lance. “Truths Universally Acknowledged. How the Rules of Doctor Who Affect the Writing.” Third Person: Authoring and Exploring Vast Narratives. Eds. Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009. 13-25.

PERRYMAN Neil. “Doctor Who and the Convergence of Media: A Case Study in Transmedia Storytelling.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. 20.1, 2008: 21-39.

PONIEWOZIK, James. “Why the Future of Television is Lost” Time Magazine. 24 September 2006. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1538635-3,00.html>

PORTER, Patrick. “Buffy vs. Dracula. Intertextuality, Carnival, and Cult.” Refractory Journal of Entertainment Media. 9 (2006) <http://blogs.arts.unimelb.edu.au/refractory/2006/07/04/buffy-vs-dracula%E2%80%9Dintertextuality-carnival-and-cultpatrick-j-porter/>

RAUCH, Peter. “Is Popular Culture Good for You?” 6 October 2005. <http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/forums/popular_culture.htm>

REEVES, Jimmie. “Postmodernism and Television: Speaking of Twin Peaks.” Full of Secrets: Critical Approaches to Twin Peaks. Ed. David Lavery. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1995. 177.

RITCHELL, Matt. “What Convergence? TV’s Hesitant March to the Net.” The New York Times. 15 February 2009. <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/16/technology/internet/16chip.html?_r=2>

ROSS, Sharon Marie. Beyond the Box: Television and the Internet. Oxford: WileyBlackwell Publishing, 2008.

Lost in a Transmedia Universe • Aaron Michael Smith

SALEN, Katie and ZIMMERMAN, Eric. . Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004.

SCHNEIDER, Michael. “‘Lost’ found on many platforms.” Variety. 10 April 2008.


TAPPER, Jake. “Behind the Secrets of ‘Lost.’” ABC News. 17 October 2006. <http://abcnews.go.com/Nightline/Story?id=2553741&page=1>

TAYLOR, Alice. “Hollywood & Games: An Interview with Jesse Alexander.”

Wonderland Blog. <http://www.wonderlandblog.com/wonderland/2007/06/


THOMAS, Rachel. “An Interview with Michael Emerson (Ben Linus/Fake Henry Gale, Lost)” About.com. <http://tvdramas.about.com/od/lostamikeemersonint.htm>

TROUP, Gary. Bad Twin. New York: Hyperion, 2006. Unfiction.com. <http://www.unfiction.com/>

VINEYARD, Jennifer. “Joss Whedon Sends Buffy Back To The Future In New

Season-Eight Comic.” VH1.com 2 July 2008. <http://www.vh1.com/movies/news/articles/1590279/20080701/story.jhtml>

______. “Re-Buffed: New Comic Book Series Resurrects Vampire Slayer.” MTV.com.1 February 2007. <http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1551286/20070131/index.jhtml>

WOLK, Josh. “‘Homicide’ welcomes its website cast to the show -- a first step in NBC’s plans to nab TV defectors.” Entertainment Weekly. 5 February 1999. <http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,84131,00.html>

WYATT, Justin. High Concept. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994.

ZEITCHIK, Steven. “Inside Move: It’s a Shames.” Variety. 18 June 2006. <http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117945504.html?categoryId=14&cs=1>